A. Science is:
1. a way of looking at the natural world and the knowledge gained
in that process.
growing and changing as scientists ask new questions and explore new ideas.
B. Scientific Inquiry
The ways in which scientists study the world around them.
C. Scientific Skills:
usually begin an investigation with a question about something that is unexplained. (problem)
involves using one or more of the senses:
Inference is an interpretation based
on observations and prior knowledge.
After posing a question, gathering information, and making observations,
scientists then form a hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a set of observations
or answer to a scientific question.
In science, a hypothesis must be something that can be tested
by observation or experimentation.
Repeated tests must provide evidence that supports the hypothesis.
Designing Controlled Experiments
Factors that could affect the outcome of an experiment are called variables.
The variable that is changed in an experiment by the experimenter is called the manipulated variable, or
Changing the independent variable may cause other variables
to change. These variables are called responding variables, or dependent variables.
To be certain that the changes in the manipulated
variable alone are responsible for any changes in the responding variable, only one variable should be manipulated at a time.
An experiment in which there is only one manipulate variable and all other variables are kept constant
is called a controlled experiment.
Data and Making Measurements
Facts, figures, and other evidence collected in an experiment are called data.
Must be collected and recorded carefully.
Forms of data are descriptions and measurements.
Scientists around the world all use the same system of measurement called
the International System of Units. (SI)
SI is based on the metric system.
Interpreting data involves looking for
patterns or trends.
a way to display the data is a part of interpreting it.
the data is collected and reviewed, a conclusion will be drawn.
The conclusion may or may not
support the hypothesis.
Eliminating a false hypothesis is just as important as supporting another hypothesis.
Making Models and Simulations
Models can be used to show or explain ideas that are not easily described by themselves.
Simulations are models that imitate real-world situations.
By communicating information, scientists learn from each other.
Methods of communication includea. scientific
journalsb. scientific meetingsc. internet (email,
discoveries are also shared with the general public.
D. Scientific Laws and Theories
1. Scientific law is a statement that describes what scientists
expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions.
2. Scientific theory is a well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide
range of observations.
accepted scientific theory has withstood repeated tests.
It is possible that additional tests might contradict a scientific theory.
E. Branches of Science
1. Earth Science is the study of Earth and its place in the universe.
2. Physical Science is the study of motion,
energy, sound, light, electricity, magnetism, and matter.
Life Science is the study of living things such as plants, animals, and microscopic life forms.
4. Environmental Science is the study of how
human activities affect Earth’s land, air, water, and living things.
F. Lab Safety
1. Why learn about lab safety? Awareness of lab safety can reduce the risk of
2. Pay attention
to directions! Listen to the teacher. Read experiments in their entirety
3. Personal protective gear. Safety glassesRubber gloves. Apron
or lab coat
4. Hot Items.
Fire (Bunsen burner), Hot plates, Mixing chemicals
5. Handling Hot Items: Tongs, Mittens, Hot Hand (insulated rubber tool)
6. Work Areaa.
Only items that are needed.
Other Safety Equipment Fire extinguisher