A. Science is:
a way of looking at the natural world and the knowledge gained in that
2. always growing and changing
as scientists ask new questions and explore new ideas.
B. Scientific Inquiry
1. The ways in which scientists study the world around them.
C. Scientific Skills:
1. Posing questions
Making observations and inferences
4. Designing experiments
Collecting data and making measurements
7. Drawing conclusions
D. Posing Questions
1. Scientists usually begin an investigation with a question about something that is unexplained. (problem)
Observations and Inferences
1. Observation involves using one or more of the senses:
is an interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge.
F. Developing Hypotheses
1. After posing a question, gathering
information, and making observations, scientists then form a hypothesis.
2. A hypothesis is a possible
explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question.
3. In science, a hypothesis
must be something that can be tested by observation or experimentation.
4. Repeated tests must provide
evidence that supports the hypothesis.
G. Designing Controlled Experiments
Factors that could affect the outcome of an experiment are called variables.
2. The variable
that is changed in an experiment by the experimenter is called the manipulated variable, or independent variable.
3. Changing the
independent variable may cause other variables to change. These variables are called responding variables, or dependent variables.
4. To be certain
that the changes in the manipulated variable alone are responsible for any changes in the responding variable, only one variable
should be manipulated at a time.
An experiment in which there is only one manipulate variable and all other
variables are kept constant is called a controlled experiment.
H. Collecting Data and Making Measurements
1. Facts, figures, and other evidence
collected in an experiment are called data.
Must be collected and recorded carefully.
3. Forms of data
are descriptions and measurements.
Scientists around the world all use the same system of measurement called
the International System of Units. (SI)
SI is based on the metric system.
I. Interpreting Data
1. Interpreting data involves looking for patterns or trends.
2. Finding a
way to display the data is a part of interpreting it.
1. Once the data is collected and reviewed, a conclusion will be drawn.
2. The conclusion
may or may not support the hypothesis.
Eliminating a false hypothesis is just as important as supporting another
K. Making Models and Simulations
1. Models can be used to show or explain
ideas that are not easily described by themselves.
Simulations are models that imitate real-world situations.
L. Communicating Information
1. By communicating information, scientists learn from each other.
2. Methods of
communication includea. scientific journalsb.
scientific meetingsc. internet (email, blogs)
Scientific discoveries are also shared with the general public.
Scientific Laws and Theories
1. Scientific law is a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular
set of conditions.
2. Scientific theory is a
well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations.
3. An accepted scientific
theory has withstood repeated tests.
It is possible that additional tests might contradict a scientific theory.
N. Branches of Science
1. Earth Science is the study of Earth and its place in the universe.
2. Physical Science
is the study of motion, energy, sound, light, electricity, magnetism, and matter.
3. Life Science
is the study of living things such as plants, animals, and microscopic life forms.
Science is the study of how human activities affect Earth’s land, air, water, and living things.
1. Why learn about lab safety? Awareness of lab
safety can reduce the risk of injury.
2. Pay attention to directions! Listen
to the teacher. Read experiments in their entirety
3. Personal protective gear. Safety glassesRubber gloves. Apron or lab coat
4. Hot Items. Fire (Bunsen burner), Hot plates, Mixing chemicals
5. Handling Hot Items: Tongs,
Mittens, Hot Hand (insulated rubber tool)
6. Work Areaa. Only
items that are needed.
Other Safety Equipment Fire extinguisher Fire blanket